Screening of condensed tannins from Canadian Prairie forages for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7, with an emphasis on purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent)
Wang, Y., Jin, L., Ominski, K.H., He, M.L., Xu, Z.J., Krause, D.O., Acharya, S.N., Wittenberg, K.M., Liu, X.-L., and McAllister, T.A. (2013). "Screening of condensed tannins from Canadian Prairie forages for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7, with an emphasis on purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent)", Journal of Food Protection, 76(4), pp. 560-567. doi : 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-12-259 Access to full text
Tannins from forages grown (n = 10) on the Canadian prairie, as well as from Quebracho, Rhus semialata, and brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), were screened for anti–Escherichia coli O157:H7 activity against E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 at a concentration of 400 μg/ml for each tannin type, except for brown seaweed, which was at 50 μg/ml. Growth of the bacteria was assessed by measuring the optical density at 600 nm over 24 h. Tannin from seaweed at a concentration of 50 μg/ml inhibited growth of strain 3081. Among the terrestrial forages, only condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent; PPC) increased (P < 0.05) the lag time and reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate of E. coli O157:H7. The anti–E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT was further assessed by culturing E. coli strain ATCC 25922 and eight strains of E. coli O157:H7 with PPC CT at 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/ml. Selected strains were enumerated after 0, 6, and 24 h of incubation, and fatty acid composition was determined after 24 h of incubation. E. coli strain 25922 was cultured with 0, 50, or 200 μg of CT per ml and harvested during the exponential growth phase for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Increasing CT concentration linearly increased (P < 0.001) the lag times of seven strains and linearly reduced (P < 0.001) the growth rates of eight E. coli O157:H7 strains. Proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in the total fatty acids were decreased (P < 0.01) by CT at 50 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT disrupted the outer membrane structure. Anti–E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT at levels of up to 200 μg/ml was bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, and the mechanism of anti–E. coli activity may involve alteration in the fatty acid composition and disruption of the outer membrane of the cell.
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