Occurrence, genetic diversity, and potential pathways of entry of Halyomorpha halys in newly invaded areas of Canada and Switzerland.
Gariepy, T.D., Haye, T., Fraser, H.M., and Zhang, J. (2014). "Occurrence, genetic diversity, and potential pathways of entry of Halyomorpha halys in newly invaded areas of Canada and Switzerland.", Journal of Pest Science, 87(1), pp. 17-28. doi : 10.1007/s10340-013-0529-3 Access to full text
Halyomorpha halys has recently established in countries outside of its Asian area of origin. In the North Eastern USA, this pest causes severe economic loss in agricultural crops. Breeding populations have been confirmed in Switzerland and Canada; however, their pathways of entry and genetic diversity remain unknown. To determine invasion pathways and source population(s), the diversity of specimens from Asia, North America, and Europe was investigated. Genetic diversity in Asia was higher than that in the Canada and Switzerland. Although three haplotypes were detected among Canadian H. halys, one haplotype dominated. In contrast, two out of three haplotypes were found frequently among Swiss samples. Based on molecular data and interception records it appears likely that H. halys in Canada is derived from the movement of established US populations. Further, North American populations likely originated from the Hebei/Beijing regions of China. The area of origin of the Swiss samples remains unclear. Although the dominant haplotype in Switzerland was consistent with Asian samples collected in the Hebei and Beijing provinces, it was not the dominant haplotype in these regions and further sampling is necessary to its confirm the distribution and abundance in the area of origin. The remaining two haplotypes were unique to Switzerland and no matches were found among our Asian samples. Interestingly, no haplotypes were shared between the North American and Swiss samples, indicating that the two invasions were separate and distinct events and did not result from the movement of goods and materials between USA and Europe.
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