Phenology, life table analysis and temperature requirements of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in Europe.
Haye, T., Abdallah, S., Gariepy, T.D., and Wyniger, D. (2014). "Phenology, life table analysis and temperature requirements of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in Europe.", Journal of Pest Science, 87(3), pp. 407-418. doi : 10.1007/s10340-014-0560-z Access to full text
The invasive Halyomorpha halys was accidentally introduced into Switzerland around 2004 and has recently established in the neighbouring countries of France and Italy. To better understand the population dynamics of this pest in Europe, the phenology, reproductive biology and temperature requirements of Swiss H. halys populations were investigated. Overwintered adults became active in April, but peak oviposition was not observed before early July. Individual females laid on average 79 eggs (maximum of 160). The oviposition period lasted from mid-June to end of September. Eggs laid in August and September did not result in offspring due to the low temperatures in autumn. Under natural fluctuating temperatures, development from egg to adult lasted between 60 and 131 days. The first new generation of adults did not occur before mid-August when the photoperiod was already below 15 h, which likely initiated diapause and suppressed the reproductive activity of new generation adults. Under controlled conditions of 20, 25 and 30 °C, Swiss H. halys populations developed within 75.8, 42.3 and 33.2 days from egg to adult, respectively. No development was possible at or below 15 and at or above 35 °C. The number of degree days required for completion of development from egg to adult was 588.24 DD. Under semi-natural conditions, total mortality of Swiss H. halys populations was 86.7 % with a net reproductive rate of 5.69, indicating growing populations. In Switzerland, H. halys is univoltine, but if it continues to spread into the Mediterranean area two generations per year could be expected.
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