Molecular phylogeny, morphology, pigment chemistry and ecology in Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales).

Lodge, J.D., Padamsee, M., Matheny, B., Aime, C., Cantrell, S.A., Boertmann, D., Kovalenko, A., Vizzini, A., Dentinger, B., Kirk, P.M., Ainsworth, A.M., Moncalvo, J.-M., Vilgalys, R., Larsson, E., Lücking, R., Griffith, G.W., Smith, M.E., Norvell, L.L., Desjardin, D.E., Redhead, S.A., Ovrebo, C.L., Lickey, E.B., Ercole, E., Hughes, K.M., Courtecuisse, R., Young, A., Binder, M., Minnis, A.M., Lindner, D.L., Ortiz-Santana, B., Haight, J., Læssøe, T., Baroni, T.J., Geml, J., and Hattori, T. (2014). "Molecular phylogeny, morphology, pigment chemistry and ecology in Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales).", Fungal Diversity, 64(1), pp. 1-99. doi : 10.1007/s13225-013-0259-0  Access to full text

Abstract

Molecular phylogenies using 1–4 gene regions and information on ecology, morphology and pigment chemistry were used in a partial revision of the agaric family Hygro- phoraceae. The phylogenetically supported genera we recognize here in the Hygrophoraceae based on these and previous analyses are: Acantholichen, Ampulloclitocybe, Arrhenia, Cantharellula, Cantharocybe, Chromosera, Chrysomphalina, Cora, Corella, Cuphophyllus, Cyphellostereum, Dictyonema, Eonema, Gliophorus, Haasiella, Humidicutis, Hygroaster, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Lichenomphalia, Neohygrocybe, Porpolomopsis and Pseudoarmillariella. A new genus that is sister to Chromosera is described as Gloioxanthomyces. Revisions were made at the ranks of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus, section and subsection. We present three new subfamilies, eight tribes (five new), eight subgenera (one new, one new combination and one stat. nov.), 26 sections (five new and three new combinations and two stat. nov.) and 14 subsections (two new, two stat. nov.). Species of Chromosera, Gliophorus, Humidicutis, and Neohygrocybe are often treated within the genus Hygrocybe; we therefore provide valid names in both classification systems. We used a minimalist approach in transferring genera and creating new names and combinations. Consequently, we retain in the Hygrophoraceae the basal cuphophylloid grade comprising the genera Cuphophyllus, Ampulloclitocybe and Cantharocybe, despite weak phylogenetic support. We include Aeruginospora and Semiomphalina in Hygrophoraceae based on morphology though molecular data are lacking. The lower hygrophoroid clade is basal to Hygrophoraceae s.s., comprising the genera Aphroditeola, Macrotyphula, Phyllotopsis, Pleurocybella, Sarcomyxa, Tricholomopsis and Typhula.

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