Descriptive analysis and early-stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.
Cliff, M.A., Fan, L., Sanford, K.A., Stanich, K., Doucette, C., and Raymond, N. (2013). "Descriptive analysis and early-stage consumer acceptance of yogurts fermented with carrot juice.", Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), 96(7), pp. 4160-4172. doi : 10.3168/jds.2012-6287 Access to full text
This research explored the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of novel probiotic unsweetened yogurts. Yogurts were made with 4 carrot juice levels (8, 16, 24, and 32%), 2 firmness levels (regular, 45 g/L milk solids; firm, 90 g/L milk solids), and 2 starter cultures (C1, C2). The sensory profile characterized the color intensity (before and after stirring), carrot flavor, sourness, and 7 texture/mouth-feel attributes (astringency, chalkiness, mouth-coating, thickness, smoothness, creaminess, and graininess). The influence of carrot juice level and firmness level were evaluated using ANOVA, polynomial contrasts, and principal component analysis. Mean scores and standard errors were calculated. Consumer acceptance panels in Wolfville, Nova Scotia (n = 56), and in Vancouver, British Columbia (Asian n = 72, non-Asian n = 72), evaluated the hedonic responses to the C1 and C2 formulations, respectively. We observed increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, and chalkiness with increasing carrot juice levels, as well as increases in color intensity, carrot flavor, creaminess, mouth-coating, thickness, and astringency with increasing milk solids concentrations of the C1 and C2 yogurts. Mean hedonic scores for color, appearance, and texture/mouth-feel were greater than hedonic scores for aroma, flavor/taste, and overall liking. This research identified the sensory qualities that need further development and demonstrated the importance of early-stage consumer acceptance research for directing new product development.
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