Effects of dose and route of administration of genistein on isoflavone concentrations in post-weaned and gestating sows.

Farmer, C., Robertson, P., and Gilani, G.S. (2013). "Effects of dose and route of administration of genistein on isoflavone concentrations in post-weaned and gestating sows.", Animal, 7(6), pp. 983-989. doi : 10.1017/S1751731113000037  Access to full text

Abstract

Phytoestrogens could be a useful tool in swine husbandry practices because of their structural and functional similarities to estradiol. The goal of this study was to compare various routes and doses of administration of the phytoestrogen genistein in sows of two different physiological statuses. Circulating concentrations of isoflavones, estradiol and IGF-I were determined. In experiment 1, 65 sows were equally divided into the five following groups, between days 3 and 5 of the first or second estrous cycle post weaning: (1) controls (CTL); (2) 1 g of genistein fed daily (OR1); (3) 2 g of genistein fed daily (OR2); (4) two daily i.m. injections of 200 mg of genistein (IM400); and (5) two daily i.m. injections of 400 mg of genistein (IM800). Treatments were carried out for 10 days. In experiment 2, 10 sows were equally divided into two groups on day 90 of gestation, namely, controls (CTL) or 2 g of genistein fed daily for 10 days (OR2). In both trials, jugular blood samples were collected on days 1 (before treatment), 5 and 10 at 0730 h. In experiment 1, a blood sample was also collected at 1730 h on day 10 for CTL, IM400 and IM800 sows. In experiment 1, circulating concentrations of genistein on days 5 and 10 were greater in OR2, IM400 and IM800 than in CTL and OR1 group sows (P < 0.01). Daily dietary supplementation with 2 g of genistein resulted in blood concentrations that were similar to those in animals given daily two i.m. injections of 200 mg. Values of all isoflavones, except equol, which was not detectable, were greater in PM than in AM on day 10 (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, genistein concentrations were greater in OR2 compared with CTL on days 5 and 10 (P ≤ 0.05). There was no difference in the genistein response to OR2 because of physiological status (i.e. weaned v. gestating, P > 0.1). Estradiol and IGF-I concentrations were not altered by any of the treatments (P > 0.1). Providing genistein either per os or via i.m. injections increased circulating concentrations of genistein in female swine within 5 days of the onset of treatment. The genistein response to i.m. injections of genistein was similar in weaned and late-pregnant sows, even though endogenous concentrations of estradiol differed. This response was specific in that estradiol, IGF-I and isoflavones other than genistein were not affected by treatments.

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