Low Doses of Allergen and Probiotic Supplementation Separately or in Combination Alleviate Allergic Reactions to Cow β-Lactoglobulin in Mice.
Thang, C.L., Boye, J.I., and Zhao, X. (2013). "Low Doses of Allergen and Probiotic Supplementation Separately or in Combination Alleviate Allergic Reactions to Cow β-Lactoglobulin in Mice.", Journal of Nutrition, 143(2), pp. 136-141. doi : 10.3945/jn.112.169466 Access to full text
Probiotic supplementation and oral tolerance induction can reduce certain types of food allergy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the allergy-reducing effects of probiotics (VSL#3) and/or oral tolerance induction via low doses of an allergen supplementation in β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-sensitized mice. Three-week-old, male BALB/c mice were divided into 6 groups (n = 8/group): sham-sensitized negative control (CTL−), BLG-sensitized positive control (CTL+), oral tolerance-induced and BLG-sensitized group (OT), probiotic-supplemented OT group (OTP), probiotic-supplemented CTL− (PRO), and probiotic-supplemented and BLG-sensitized (PROC) groups. Mice were i.p. sensitized with BLG and alum and then orally challenged with BLG. Immunological responses were assessed by monitoring hypersensitivity scores and measuring levels of BLG-specific serum Igs, total serum IgE and fecal IgA, and cytokines from serum and spleen lysates. Hypersensitivity scores were significantly lower in the PROC (2.00 ± 0.53), OT (0.75 ± 0.46), and OTP mice (1.00 ± 0.53) than in the CTL+ mice (2.63 ± 0.52) as were BLG-specific serum IgE concentrations (34.3 ± 10, 0.442 ± 0.36, 3.54 ± 3.5, and 78.5 ± 8.7 μg/L for PROC, OT, OTP, and CTL+, respectively). Our results suggest that supplementation of VSL#3 suppressed the allergic reaction mainly through increased intestinal secretary IgA (sIgA) in PROC mice, and oral tolerance offered allergen-specific protective effects to BLG-induced allergy, probably through CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell-mediated active suppression. In OTP mice, probiotics did not induce a further reduction of hypersensitivity score compared with OT mice but may provide additional protection to unforeseen nonspecific challenges through increased intestinal sIgA.
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