Adipose tissue and muscle fatty acid profiles of steers fed red clover silage with and without flaxseed.
Mapiye, C., Turner, T.D., Rolland, D., Basarab, J.A., Baron, V.S., McAllister, T.A., Block, H.C., Uttaro, B., Aalhus, J.L., and Dugan, M.E.R (2013). "Adipose tissue and muscle fatty acid profiles of steers fed red clover silage with and without flaxseed.", Livestock Science, 151(1), pp. 11-20. doi : 10.1016/j.livsci.2012.10.021 Access to full text
The current study examined the effects of inclusion of flaxseed in a red clover silage diet on growth, carcass quality, adipose tissue and muscle fatty acid (FA) profiles of beef steers. Twelve British×Continental crossbred steers (363±26.5 kg) were randomly assigned to two pens and fed diets containing 70% red clover silage, 15% steam rolled barley/vitamin-mineral supplement and either additional 15% steam rolled barley or 15% triple rolled flaxseed (all DM basis) for 215 d. Diet had no effect (P>0.05) on average daily gain or carcass quality atributes. Overall, FA profiles in all tissues followed similar trends when flaxseed was added to the diet but intramuscular fat had the highest proportions of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) while subcutaneous fat had largest proportions of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and perirenal fat had the highest proportions of trans-18:1 isomers, particularly vaccenic acid (VA). Feeding flaxseed increased (P<0.05) percentages of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 1.1-1.6% of total FA), total n-3 PUFA, conjugated linolenic acids, non-conjugated linoleic acids (mostly t11,c15-18:2), and led to unprecedented increases in CLA (mainly rumenic acid, RA; 1.1-2.9%), and trans-18:1 isomers (chiefly VA; 5.9–9.5%) in muscle and adipose tissues. Flaxseed also reduced individual and total n-6 PUFA, cis-monounsaturated FA, branched-chain FA and saturated FA (mainly 16:0) in beef lipids. Overall, feeding flaxseed in a red clover silage diet enhanced the levels of FA with a positive health image (ALA, 2-fold; RA, 3 to 4-fold and VA, 4 to 5-fold) and reduced the levels of less desirable FA (n-6 PUFA; 14:0, 16:0) in muscle and adipose tissues without adverse effects on growth and carcass quality. Differences in tissue FA composition were also noted, and high levels of VA in perirenal fat in particular have potential for use in testing for health effects and development of value added beef and other food products.
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