A phylogenetic analysis of relationships among genera of Conopidae (Diptera) based on molecular and morphological data.
Gibson, J.F., Skevington, J.H., and Kelso, S. (2013). "A phylogenetic analysis of relationships among genera of Conopidae (Diptera) based on molecular and morphological data.", Cladistics, 29(2), pp. 193-226. doi : 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00422.x Access to full text
Members of the family Conopidae (Diptera) have been the focus of little targeted phylogenetic research. The most comprehensive test of phylogenetic support for the present subfamily classification of Conopidae is presented here using 66 specimens, including 59 species of Conopidae and seven outgroup taxa. Relationships among subfamily clades are also explored. A total of 6824 bp of DNA sequence data from five gene regions (12S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, 28S ribosomal DNA and alanyl-tRNA synthetase) are combined with 111 morphological characters in a combined analysis using both parsimony and Bayesian methods. Parsimony analysis recovers three shortest trees. Bayesian analysis recovers a nearly identical tree. Five monophyletic subfamilies of Conopidae are recovered. The rarely acknowledged Zodioninae is restored, including the genera Zodion and Parazodion. The genus Sicus is removed from Myopinae. Morphological synapomorphies are discussed for each subfamily and inter-subfamily clade, including a comprehensive review of the character interpretaions of previous authors. Included are detailed comparative illustrations of male and female genitalia of representatives of all five subfamilies with new morphological interpretation.
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