Thirty-year manuring and fertilization on heavy metals in black soil and soil aggregates in notheastern China.
Fan, J., Ding, W., and Ziadi, N. (2013). "Thirty-year manuring and fertilization on heavy metals in black soil and soil aggregates in notheastern China.", Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 44(7), pp. 1224-1241. doi : 10.1080/00103624.2012.756002 Access to full text
To evaluate the effects of thirty years of manure and chemical fertilizer applications on metal accumulations in soil and soil aggregates, fresh soils were separated by wet sieving into four aggregate fractions and heavy-metal concentrations in soil and aggregates were determined. The soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration in microaggregates ranged from 20.2 to 39.6 g carbon (C) kg-1, which was significantly greater than those in the other fractions. The proportion of heavy metals in small macroaggregates and the silt + clay fraction accounted for 45.5 ± 10.6% and 35.8 ± 14.1% of the total amount in soil, respectively, which might be due primarily to their greater mass percentages in soil. Both chemical fertilizer and manure significantly stimulated iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) accumulation; horse manure also increased copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr) concentration in bulk soils as compared with the control. The results also indicated that heavy-metal distribution in aggregates was not controlled by SOC but possibly by soil clay.
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