Response of the dusky wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), to residual levels of bifenthrin in field soil.
van Herk, W.G. and Vernon, R.S. (2013). "Response of the dusky wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), to residual levels of bifenthrin in field soil.", Journal of Pest Science, 86(1), pp. 125-136. doi : 10.1007/s10340-011-0386-x Access to full text
To determine if bifenthrin residues elicit morbidity and surfacing behavior in wireworms, larvae of the dusky wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) were placed in field soil treated with the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin ~1 year previous. Morbidity was immediate and lasted as long as wireworms remained in the soil, disappearing quickly after transfer to clean soil. In 2009, field soil treated 336 days previous with bifenthrin at 340 g AI/ha elicited morbidity symptoms similar to that elicited by soil freshly amended with bifenthrin at 100 g AI, and analysis of the field soil confirmed residual levels of bifenthrin exceeding 100 g AI/ha. In 2010, wireworms placed in field soil treated 343 days previous with bifenthrin at 100, 200, and 300 g AI/ha responded as in 2009, with the degree of morbidity increasing with the rate of insecticide, and with wireworms in a non-feeding state more affected than those in a feeding state at each rate. In both 2009 and 2010, moribund wireworms moved to the soil surface within 1 day of placement in the soil containing residual bifenthrin and remained there until reburied, after which they often resurfaced. To confirm that the bifenthrin residues elicited repellency, wireworms were placed in soil window bioassays containing field soil with residual bifenthrin. Wireworms behaved markedly different upon contacting soil containing the residues than when exposed to untreated soil, both in the presence and absence of an attractant, but were less likely to avoid soil containing residual bifenthrin when attracted by wheat seedlings placed inside it.
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