Categorization and numerical assessment of wireworm mobility over time following exposure to bifenthrin.
van Herk, W.G. and Vernon, R.S. (2013). "Categorization and numerical assessment of wireworm mobility over time following exposure to bifenthrin.", Journal of Pest Science, 86(1), pp. 115-123. doi : 10.1007/s10340-011-0381-2 Access to full text
We discuss the effect of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin incorporated into soil at 100, 200, and 300 g AI/ha on late-instar larvae of the dusky wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), and present a method of assessing wireworm health and mobility over time. Wireworms became moribund within 1 h of placement in soil amended with bifenthrin at all rates. After 2 weeks of morbidity in amended soils, wireworms recovered within 7 days of being placed in clean soil. A considerable proportion (0.13–0.93) of wireworms placed in amended soil moved to the soil surface and remained there for 2 weeks or more in a moribund state; wireworms transferred to clean soil no longer moved to the soil surface. Eight distinct mobility categories were observed and are described, and a new method for assessing wireworm health and mobility over time is discussed.
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