High-density marker profiling confirms ancestral genomes of Avena species and identifies D-genome chromosomes of hexaploid oat

Yan, H., Bekele, W. A., Wight, C. P., Peng, Y., Langdon, T., Latta, R. G., Fu, Y.-B., Diederichsen, A., Howarth, C. J., Jellen, E. N., Boyle, B., Wei, Y., and Tinker, N. A., 2016: High-density marker profiling confirms ancestral genomes of Avena species and identifies D-genome chromosomes of hexaploid oat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 129, 2133–2149.

Abstract

We investigated genomic relationships among 27 species of the genus Avena using high-density genetic markers revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Two methods of GBS analysis were used: one based on tag-level haplotypes that were previously mapped in cultivated hexaploid oat (A. sativa), and one intended to sample and enumerate tag-level haplotypes originating from all species under investigation. Qualitatively, both methods gave similar predictions regarding the clustering of species and shared ancestral genomes. Furthermore, results were consistent with previous phylogenies of the genus obtained with conventional approaches, supporting the robustness of whole genome GBS analysis. Evidence is presented to justify the final and definitive classification of the tetraploids A. insularis, A. maroccana (=A. magna), and A. murphyi as containing D-plus-C genomes, and not A-plus-C genomes, as is most often specified in past literature. Through electronic painting of the 21 chromosome representations in the hexaploid oat consensus map, we show how the relative frequency of matches between mapped hexaploid-derived haplotypes and AC (DC)-genome tetraploids vs. A- and C-genome diploids can accurately reveal the genome origin of all hexaploid chromosomes, including the approximate positions of inter-genome translocations. Evidence is provided that supports the continued classification of a diverged B genome in AB tetraploids, and it is confirmed that no extant A-genome diploids, including A. canariensis, are similar enough to the D genome of tetraploid and hexaploid oat to warrant consideration as a D-genome diploid

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