Evaluation of Fumagilin-B and other potential alternative chemotherapies against Nosema ceranae-infected honey bees (Apis mellifera) in cage trial assays.
van den Heever, J.P., Thompson, T.S., Otto, S.J.G., Curtis, J.M., Ibrahim, A.A., and Pernal, S.F. (2016). "Evaluation of Fumagilin-B and other potential alternative chemotherapies against Nosema ceranae-infected honey bees (Apis mellifera) in cage trial assays.", Apidologie, 47(5), pp. 617-630. doi : 10.1007/s13592-015-0409-3 Access to full text
Fumagilin-B® is the only currently registered chemical treatment available to combat nosema disease in apiculture. Fumagillol, the basic hydrolysis product of fumagillin, two semisynthetic fumagillin analogues, and four in-house purely synthetic compounds which were designed to mimic the mode of action of fumagillin against the methionine aminopeptidase type 2 (MetAP-2) enzyme, was observed to exhibit statistically significant biological activity against Nosema ceranae-infected caged bees. None of these compounds were, however, as effective as Fumagilin-B®. The commercially available thymol and enilconazole also exhibited activity against N. ceranae, with thymol being the most promising chemical treatment other than Fumagilin-B®. High cumulative bee mortality was associated with the therapeutic dosage of Fumagilin-B® during our study, suggesting the need for continued investigation.
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