Genetic diversity, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin contents in lingonberry.
Debnath, S.C. and Sion, M. (2009). "Genetic diversity, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin contents in lingonberry.", International Journal of Fruit Science, 9(2), pp. 185-199. doi : 10.1080/15538360903005061 Access to full text
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) wild clones and cultivars were assessed for antioxidant activities, anthocyanin content, and for genetic variability using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Four ISSR primers generated 113 polymorphic bands in 34 clones and eight cultivars. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated the 41 genotypes into three main clusters, and identified the one remaining clone as an outlier. Within one cluster, the genotypes tended to form subclusters that were in agreement with a principal coordinate (PCO) analysis. Geographical distribution based on country of collection explained 12% of the total variation as revealed by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content were higher in the berries of clones belonging to V. vitis-idaea ssp. minus than those of the V. vitis-idaea ssp. vitis-idaea cultivars. The UPGMA clustering for chemical markers with 11 clones and seven cultivars identified two major clusters and one outlier. The ISSR markers and analyses of antioxidant activities and anthocyanin contents detected a sufficient degree of polymorphism to differentiate among lingonberries, making this technology valuable for germplasm management, and more efficient choices of parents in current lingonberry breeding programs.
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