Central Experimental Farm National Historic Site Management Plan (20 of 20)

Appendix: Commemorative Integrity Statement

1.0 Introduction

1.1 National Historic Sites Objectives

The federal government's objectives for Canada's National Historic Sites program are:

  • to foster knowledge and appreciation of Canada's past through a national program of historic commemoration; and
  • to ensure the commemorative integrity of national historic sites by protecting and presenting them for the benefit, education and enjoyment of this and future generations, in a manner that respects the significant and irreplaceable legacy represented by these places and their associated resources.

1.2 Commemorative Integrity and the Commemorative Integrity Statement [CIS]

Commemorative integrity was originally developed as a conceptual framework to help manage and report on the state of national historic sites administered by Parks Canada. Recently, however, the concept of commemorative integrity has been applied with success to a number of national historic sites owned by others to help focus the site's planning and decision-making issues. It is important to note, that the commemorative integrity statement is not intended as a substitute for a planning document or exercise; rather, it is written to inform the planning and management processes of the site.

Commemorative integrity relates to the health or wholeness of an historic site. In terms of a definition, a national historic site possesses commemorative integrity when:

  • the resources that represent or symbolize its importance are not impaired or under threat;
  • the reasons for the site's national significance is effectively communicated to the public; and
  • the site's heritage values are respected by all whose decisions or actions affect the site.

The commemorative integrity statement is a site-specific document that addresses the three parts of commemorative integrity.

Part 1 (sections 3.0 - 7.2) identifies:

  • why the place is commemorated as being of national historic significance (the commemorative intent);
  • what cultural resources - the whole and the parts of the whole - symbolize or represent the national historic significance of the place;
  • the historic values of the place and its resources;
  • objectives to ensure that the place and its resources are not impaired or under threat.

Part 2 (sections 8.0 - 8.2) identifies:

  • the messages of national significance that should be communicated about the place;
  • contextual messages that support and enhance understanding of the nationally significant messages;
  • objectives to ensure that the messages are effectively communicated to the public.

Part 3 (sections 9.0 - 10.1) identifies:

  • additional heritage values and cultural resources associated with the site but that are not of national significance;
  • objectives to ensure that these heritage resources are not impaired or under threat
  • additional heritage messages about the site that can be communicated to the public.

As is the case with all such documents, the commemorative integrity statement for the Central Experimental Farm identifies the site's level 1 (i.e. nationally significant) and level 2 (i.e. other values) cultural resources, describes their historic values and establishes objectives for their preservation and presentation. The objectives are not presented as a detailed 'how to' or 'to do' list that attempts to detail specific actions or anticipate every contingency that might arise; rather, they are presented as indicators that focus on respect for the historic values and the preservation of the nationally significant cultural resources of the Farm. As such, this document provides fundamental direction for the site and is intended as an enduring foundation for all management and planning initiatives, not as a substitute for them.

Note: Please refer to the glossary of cultural resource management and landscape design terminology at the end of this document.

1.3 A Commemorative Integrity Statement for the Central Experimental Farm

With the designation of the Central Experimental Farm as a national historic site, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) is interested in developing a tool to assist in managing the site's heritage values. Therefore, at the request of AAFC, Parks Canada has assisted in the development of a Commemorative Integrity Statement for the Central Experimental Farm. Because of the complexity of the site and the importance of involving a significant number of interests, the development of the CIS involved both a Core Team and a Working Team. The Core Team had representation from the key Cultural Resource Management (CRM) functional areas as well as from the primary organizational interests.

The primary responsibility of the Core Team was to develop the first two parts of the Commemorative Integrity Statement - resources and messages of national significance and the related performance objectives. The Working Team was considerably larger and was composed of the Core Team along with representatives of a variety of groups who have an interest in the Farm and its heritage values. They had responsibility for reviewing the product of the Core Team and for developing the third part - other heritage values. (Members of the Core and Working Teams are identified in Appendix 2.)

The ultimate product of the process was a Commemorative Integrity Statement for the Central Experimental Farm, National Historic Site (NHS). This CIS provides the basis for managing the heritage values and potentially as input into the development of a master plan for the Farm.

2.0 Historical Background

2.1 The Evolving Landscape of the Central Experimental Farm

Established by an Act of Parliament in 1886 at a time when Canadian agricultural science was in its infancy, the Central Experimental Farm was given a mandate to: carry out experimental and investigational work in connection with livestock breeding; examine scientific and economic questions related to the dairy industry; test the merits of cereals, field crops, grasses, forage plants, fruits, vegetables, plants and trees; analyze and test fertilizers and animal feed; study plant diseases and treatments; test agricultural seeds; and conduct any experiments and researches bearing upon the agricultural industry of Canada, which might be approved by the Minister of Agriculture. To accomplish this enormous task, the Central Experimental Farm was established near Ottawa, where it could serve the regions of Ontario and Quebec. Additional experimental farms were established at Nappan, Nova Scotia; Brandon, Manitoba; Indian Head, Saskatchewan; and Agassiz, British Columbia.

Inspired by the drive of two men, its first director, William Saunders, and John Carling, Minister of Agriculture, the Central Experimental Farm and its satellites developed rapidly and set the course agricultural research would take in Canada. Until Carling's appointment as Minister in 1885, the emphasis of the Department of Agriculture had been on immigration and public works.

In the 1880s however, a drop in farm product prices and other matters led Sir John A. Macdonald's government to refocus its policies on supporting settlement, particularly in Western Canada. On the advice of the House of Commons Committee on Agriculture, known as the Gigault Committee, Saunders was asked by Carling to investigate the idea that agricultural experimentation might usefully be applied to problems of settling and cultivating the Canadian North-West.

Like other scientists of his time, Saunders believed that science had practical applications to agriculture. Through the study of crops, insects, fertilizers and soils, methods could be developed to control potential problems. Most importantly, Saunders and Carling both shared the widely held belief that agriculture was the foundation of the nation's prosperity. And, since most farmers did not have the resources or skills to conduct research, government institutions, like an experimental farm, were needed to conduct experiments on their behalf and to disseminate information and improved plant and animal varieties. In accordance with Saunders' advice, in November 1886 the Department of Agriculture secured 15 properties covering 465 acres for the site of the Central Experimental Farm. This land was situated in Nepean Township approximately two miles to the southwest of Parliament Hill.

The rectangular parcel of land had been carefully chosen for its variety of soil types and easy access to rail and land transportation routes. It included the J. R. Booth farm and three other working 4 farms as well as a large swamp. Part of the property rose 80 feet above the Rideau Canal and Dow's Lake and afforded a fine view of the Parliament Buildings. The extensive preparatory work included draining swampy areas, clearing trees and stumps, removing old fences and buildings, constructing a new fence around the perimeter of the entire site and grading the land to avoid what Saunders referred to as "unsightliness" and to give a "reasonably neat appearance to this part of the work."

When the preparatory work was completed, Saunders "employed an eminent landscape architect to lay out the farm" in a Picturesque design. Within two years, fields had been cleared and the first buildings erected. They consisted of a house for the director (on the site of the present William Saunders' Building), four residences for staff officers (of which Buildings 54 and 60 remain), a barn with stabling attached (the original burned in 1913 and was replaced by the present, almost identical structure known as the Main Dairy Barn, Building 88), the Cereal Building (Building 75) and houses for seed testing and seed distribution, and a building to contain an administration office, a laboratory and a museum (since demolished). In 1889, the McNeely Residence (built for the farm employee overseeing the care of the livestock, and which burned down in 1996), an implement and harness shed (Building 98) and a stable for the director's residence (Building 77) were built.

The following year a Dairy building and two additional cottages were added to the complex (all since demolished). By 1890, the principal group of buildings comprised the Main Dairy Barn, the implement and harness shed and stableman's cottage all situated near the barnyard. The administration office and Cereal Building formed a second group, and the four residences formed the third group with the director's standing alone, separated from the other buildings by a large lawn. Another extant building constructed a little later was the Nutrition Building (Building 59). These buildings were designed in styles that complement the landscape design. There is an emphasis on picturesque massing and silhouette, a delight in different textures, particularly for the wooden farm buildings, and colour as illustrated by the orange and red brick trimmed in cream of the science and administration buildings. These buildings established the architectural style for the CEF until after the Second World War. The plans and specifications were prepared under the superintendence of the Chief Architect's Branch of the Department of Public Works. The Chief Architect was Thomas Fuller, the architect of the original Parliament Buildings.

The Farm buildings were carefully sited in accordance with the landscape plan. Since its establishment, the Central Experimental Farm has played an important role in the development of Ottawa and the surrounding districts. As the city grew the Farm was gradually absorbed into the urban environment and is now situated well within the city limits. By 1903, the Ottawa Improvement Commission had identified it as an integral part of the city's park system. By the 1940s the Farm's driveways had been absorbed into the capital's parkway system. Livestock research was moved off-site in 1959 due to space limitations, but in the early 1960s the Showcase Herds were established to demonstrate the quality of Canadian livestock to visitors from around the world. Today these herds, too, are gone.

The National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation's Agriculture Museum maintains a number of various livestock breeds on display, as part of the Museum's role of communicating Canada's agricultural heritage to a mostly urbanized population. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada continues to conduct a full research programme at the Farm, although with far greater specialization than in Saunders' day: the Farm's efforts are concentrated primarily in the areas of grain and oil seed research. Selected References For further information, please refer to: Margaret Archibald. "The Establishment of the Experimental Farms Branch", Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada Agenda Paper, 1981-57, and Jacqueline Hucker. "Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario." Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada Agenda Paper, 1997-43.

2.2 Definition of the Picturesque Aesthetic

The Picturesque landscape was a manifestation of the Romantic movement. It arose in England during the 18th century as generations awoke to the pictorial charms of the English countryside and, in so doing, rejected the geometric formality that had governed garden design since the early 17th century. The word Picturesque does not refer to a style but to an aesthetic point of view which gave rise to the new approach to landscape design. It derived from the Italian Pittoresco, meaning after the manner of painting. It was generally agreed that the new aesthetics were first appreciated and captured by the great Italian landscape painters of the 17th century and brought to England through the widespread experience of the Grand Tour.

The Picturesque movement was led by English aesthetic theorists and practitioners who sought to bring landscape design closer to an idealized nature. They emphasized nature's inherent visual qualities defined as irregularity, variety, and intricacy in form, colour, and texture and their effects in the play of light and shadow. The followers of the Picturesque movement believed that by expounding these values landscape designers would learn to enhance nature's inherent beauty. The Picturesque tradition was carried to Canada at the end of the 18th century and during the 19th century by British colonial officials and middle class emigrants who recognized the picturesque qualities of the North American wilderness. Country and villa estates such as Prince's Lodge and Mount Uniacke (Nova Scotia), Cataraqui (Quebec), Inverarden House, Dundum Castle, and Rideau Hall (all Ontario) represent the adaptation of this ideal to the Canadian landscape.

When the Central Experimental Farm was laid out in the 1880s, the Picturesque landscape had acquired a certain number of conventions, not only in Britain but also in Canada. One such convention was the adoption of certain standard features of the British country estate, particularly its pastoral appearance and such recurring elements as large stretches of lawn and fields, gently rolling land, pleasing water vistas, and winding paths that encourage the enjoyment of the outdoors providing leisurely changes of experience. The Picturesque movement had a profound effect on architecture, which came to be viewed as an integral part of the overall scenic composition. Architecture, therefore, was expected to blend in and be in visual and emotional harmony with its surroundings.

2.3 The 19th Century "Philosophy of Agriculture"

The proponents of the 19th century "philosophy of agriculture", or agricultural reform, sought to develop better farming methods through the application of science, especially the emerging disciplines of chemistry and genetics to agriculture. The reformers espoused mixed farming to offset the impact of fluctuating prices and were of the opinion that farm life could be made more appealing, not only through more financial rewards, but also through farm beautification projects. Agricultural reform had its roots in late-18th century Britain; it was introduced with varying degrees of success in the eastern United States and Atlantic Canada in the early 19th century and took hold in the 1850s subsequently spreading north to Ontario and Quebec and then to western Canada. As it moved it adapted to differing North American conditions and to farm mechanization that was then taking place. Knowledge of the change overtaking North American agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was transmitted largely through the establishment of experimental farms and organizations such as agricultural colleges, practical research programs and agricultural societies.

Part I

3.0 Statement of Commemorative Intent

The commemorative intent of the Central Experimental Farm National Historic Site focusses on what is nationally significant about the site. It refers specifically to the reasons for the site's national significance, as determined by the recommendations of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC or "the Board") as approved by the Minister of Canadian Heritage.

The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada has considered the historic significance of the Central Experimental Farm twice. In 1981, the Board recommended the commemoration of the establishment of the Dominion experimental farm system. Plaque texts were approved by the Board in 1985 for the Central Experimental Farm, the headquarters of the system, and four branch farms: in Nappan, Nova Scotia; Brandon, Manitoba; Indian Head, North-West Territories; and Agassiz, British Columbia. The Board considered the Central Experimental Farm for the second time in June 1997, and on this occasion it noted: The Board had no hesitation in recommending that the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa is a cultural landscape of national historic and architectural significance and should be commemorated by means of a plaque.

The Board recommended the designation of the Central Experimental Farm because: as a cultural landscape, the more than 1000-acre [approx. 400 hectare] farm in the heart of the Nation's capital reflects the 19th century philosophy of agriculture and carefully integrates an administrative core and a range of other buildings with arboretum, ornamental gardens, display beds and experimental fields in a picturesque composition. Further, since its establishment in 1886, the farm has made significant scientific contributions to agriculture in Canada by uniting scientific experimentation with practical verification, as exemplified by the development of the hardy strains of wheat that were so influential in expanding Western Canadian agriculture. Beyond that, a rare example of a farm within a city, the Central Experimental Farm has become a symbol of the central role agriculture has played in shaping the country. Above all, the Board saw the Central Experimental farm's distinctiveness as a cultural landscape as defining its national significance.

The Board further recommended that, if, as appeared to be the case, further changes to the Farm, through dispositions or otherwise, were to be considered, that serious attention to and analysis of the Farm's heritage values in the context of the whole should be required before such changes were made, in order to ensure that its significance as a cultural landscape was not unduly compromised. Therefore, on the recommendation of the HSMBC, the Minister of Canadian Heritage has designated the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa as a national historic site because it is a cultural landscape of national historic and architectural significance.

The commemorative intent of the Central Experimental Farm is encompassed in the following historic values: its distinctiveness as a cultural landscape; the fact that the more than 400-hectare farm in the heart of the Nation's Capital reflects the 19th century philosophy of agriculture and carefully integrates an administrative core and a range of other buildings with arboretum, ornamental gardens, display beds and experimental fields in a picturesque composition; the fact that since its establishment in 1886, the Central Experimental Farm has made significant scientific contributions to agriculture in Canada by uniting scientific experimentation with practical verification, as exemplified by the development of the hardy strains of wheat that were so influential in expanding Western Canadian agriculture; the fact that it is a rare example of a farm within a city; and the fact that it has become a symbol of the central role agriculture has played in shaping the country. These key values will be referred to throughout this document.

4.0 Defining the Designated Place

The Central Experimental Farm is situated in the urban setting of Ottawa. The boundaries of the designated place are defined as those lands which are bounded on the north by Carling Avenue; on the west by Fisher Avenue as far as Kingston Avenue, excluding the complex of Fisher Heights, and by Merivale Road as far as Baseline Road; on the south by Baseline Road north to Prince of Wales Drive (Highway 16); and on the east by Prince of Wales Drive as far as the bend in the road, by the western edge of the Rideau Canal property as far as Queen Elizabeth Drive, and by the Central Experimental Farm property boundary as far as Carling Avenue, as illustrated on the map, Appendix 1. These boundaries define the place designated as a national historic site.

4.1 Character of the Designated Place

The Central Experimental Farm is characterized as a planned, designed and evolved cultural landscape whose national significance lies in part in its physical manifestations of the 19th century philosophy of agriculture and the Picturesque landscape linked by the 1880's design. Incorporated into this are administrative, scientific and agricultural buildings which respect the original design. Implicit in the Picturesque design are the relationships between the core zones, between buildings and the outdoor spaces, including the well-established system of paths and roadways, the long vistas across fields and water, and the intangible, life-giving qualities of light. All are still legible on the landscape, all enhance the aesthetic character of the Central Experimental Farm, and all reinforce the sense of historic place. The original plan divides the Farm into three clearly defined primary zones, each representing an area of concentration and specialization: the central core of functional farm, science and administration buildings; the experimental fields and plots with their bordering shelter belts; and the arboretum, ornamental gardens and experimental hedges.

4.1 a Within the first zone, the central core is organized around the Driveway. To the north of the Driveway, the science and administration buildings are arranged around an expanse of lawn, south of the Saunders Building. Trees and shrubs are laid out in a gardenesque manner so that each plant is displayed to its best advantage.. To the south of the Driveway is situated the model farm. The model farm was intended to demonstrate the most efficient and orderly layout of farm buildings, although its primary functions included pure and applied scientific agricultural research and practical farming. The task of directing the entire network of Dominion Experimental Farms, as well as the Central Experimental Farm, was carried on from the administration buildings. Originally, many of the residences for senior Farm personnel were grouped in this central core.

4.1 b The second zone of experimental fields and plots is located to the south and west of the central core. Planted with a variety of crops for testing, these are well laid out in a highly ordered pattern, with an orderly system of laneways for easy access, and protective fencing. Within the fields are clusters of small buildings which serve as field laboratories, supporting the active research projects. The Booth barn complex, in part predating the establishment of the farm, is located at the south end of the fields, near Baseline Road. The Farm's development of hardy trees for shelterbelts is illustrated by the remaining stands of trees at the west side of the Farm, along the north end of Fisher Avenue. The shelterbelts serve the practical agronomic function of protecting the fields. Extensive research was formerly carried out on the design and establishment of shelterbelts, as well as the tree species which were most suitable; such information was particularly important to prairie farmers.

4.1 c In the third zone, the arboretum is laid out on the easternmost side of the Farm. Planned as a means of testing and demonstrating suitable tree species for various hardiness zones of the country, this site is characterized by its wide variety of specimen trees and shrubs. Together with the experimental hedge collection, located north of the Saunders Building lawn, and the ornamental beds west of Prince of Wales Drive, the arboretum illustrates the scope of the Farm's scientific activity, as well as the view that beautification schemes enhance farm life.

These primary zones are orchestrated into a unified plan that is characterized by its pastoral appearance. It incorporates such features as long stretches of lawn and fields, gently rolling land, pleasing water vistas, a core of buildings attractively set among groups of mature trees and clumps of shrubbery, and winding pathways that encourage outdoor enjoyment and provide leisurely changes of experience. The orderliness and neatness which are so characteristic of the Farm are not only pleasing to the eye, but are also critical to the Farm's scientific pursuits.

The Picturesque character of the core farm buildings is illustrated by their compatible scale, varied massing and silhouettes, as well as by the variety and application of their wood cladding. The same vocabulary is applied to the core science and administration buildings, but these are distinguished from the farm buildings by the use of brick cladding. The glass and metal framed greenhouses exhibit similar qualities. Buildings of the 1920s and 1930s adhere to the established design vocabulary, but are modified to suit the more functional taste of the period. The Picturesque quality of the Central Experimental Farm is further enhanced by the manner in which the core buildings are frequently set off by flower beds, shade trees, shrubbery and lawn.

The Sir John Carling Building, situated at the northeast comer of the property, respects the underlying organization of the 1880s plan through its location in the central core, and its setting of lawns and flower beds. As the headquarters of the Department of Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, it speaks to the pivotal role of the department in the agricultural history of Canada.

Although not linked to agricultural research, the Observatory complex at the north end of the property likewise reflects the historic character of its surroundings as a "scientific campus" and contributes to the character of the Central Experimental Farm.

The Farm is now bounded on three sides by urban development, characterized by major roadways carrying high volumes of traffic, and mature residential and institutional areas. This provides a strong sense of contrast and juxtaposition, emphasizing the rural qualities of the Farm: it is possible to drive along a multi-lane urban roadway and suddenly come across a view of wide fields bordered by leafy green lanes to the cluster of barns in the central core.

The parkways which now run through the Farm, the Driveway which is owned by the National Capital Commission and Prince of Wales Drive which is owned by the Regional Municipality of Ottawa- Carleton, are scenic roadways which link the Farm to the city and reinforce the distinctive character of the historic place.

4.2 Historic Values of the Designated Place

The Central Experimental Farm as a whole is valued because: of its distinctiveness as a cultural landscape; the more than 400-hectare farm in the heart of the Nation's Capital reflects the 19th century philosophy of agriculture and carefully integrates an administrative core and a range of other buildings with arboretum, ornamental gardens, display bed and experimental fields in a Picturesque composition; since its establishment in 1886, the Farm has made significant scientific contributions to agriculture in Canada by uniting scientific experimentation with practical verification; it is a rare example of a farm within a city; and it has become a symbol of the central role agriculture has played in shaping the country.

4.3 Objectives for the Designated Place

The designated place will be unimpaired and not under threat when: the present boundaries and spatial balance of the Farm, which enhance understanding of the historic and on-going agricultural research function, are safeguarded and maintained; the surviving 19th century landscape plan, including the core administration, scientific and farm buildings, plus the arboretum, lawns, ornamental gardens and display beds, experimental fields, plots and shelterbelts, and circulation patterns set in a Picturesque composition, is safeguarded and maintained in accordance with recognized heritage conservation principles; a sufficiently large area to carry out and support the scientific research function is maintained; the character of a "farm" as defined by fields, utilitarian buildings and circulation patterns is recognized; and the "farm within a city" remains sufficiently large to provide a contrast to the scale of urban development. the historic values of the designated place are communicated to the public.

5.0 The Cultural Landscape

Parks Canada defines a cultural landscape as "any geographical area that has been modified, influenced, or given special cultural meaning by people" (Guiding Principles and Operational Policies, 1994). The World Heritage Committee (UNESCO) has agreed that "cultural landscapes, like other products of human activity such as buildings and archaeological sites, demonstrate human values, skills and intentions" (Guiding Principles and Operational Policies). In its definition, the U.S. National Park Service also includes "natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values" (U.S. NPS, NPS-28, 1994). The World Heritage Committee has identified that cultural landscapes might be categorized as either: i) designed; ii) organically evolved; or, iii) associative. Although the Farm exhibits traits of each of these, the predominant character is that of the designed landscape.

5.1 Landscape Features that Symbolize or Represent the Site's National Historic Significance

As previously noted, this cultural landscape is manifested by its division into three primary zones. Each zone is comprised of patterns and features which, together, give each its unique character. These character-defining elements can be categorized as either landscape elements or buildings.

5.1 a The Central Core Within the central core, those elements of the cultural landscape which relate directly to the statement of commemorative intent, and which are therefore level 1 resources, include all surviving features of the 1880's plan which reflect the 19th century philosophy of agriculture and the Picturesque composition. (Although buildings are an integral part of this cultural landscape, due to the numbers of buildings present in the central core, they will be dealt with at the end of this section.)

These level 1 resources include: the expanse of lawn south of the Saunders Building; the effective use of topography, such as the siting of the Main Dairy Barn on a central knoll, and the use of the wooded escarpment along the east of the property to distinguish the boundary and frame the approach; shady, tree-lined roads and lanes; the relative density and variety of buildings, and apparent informal building placement; the intimate scale of the interior of the zone, and the campus-like atmosphere; the placement and diversity of species of trees and shrubbery; the traffic circle at the junction of Prince of Wales and the Driveway, which, though not established until the 1930s, serves as a distinctive landmark and entrance to the Farm and maintains the harmony between the evolved landscape and the original design; and the compatible scale and design of both Prince of Wales Drive and the Driveway, which have evolved from the main north-south and east-west roads in the original 1880s plan and which link the Farm to the city.

Level 1 Buildings on the Cultural Landscape Most of the level 1 buildings on the Farm are concentrated in the central core in accordance with the design intention of the 1880s plan. These buildings are those which both collectively and individually make an important contribution to the character of the nationally significant cultural landscape and, in addition, have a prominent association with the research and administrative function of the Farm. The following list identifies the level 1 buildings at the Farm. The letter 'S' or 'P' after each building signifies which theme in the Statement of Commemorative Intent the building speaks to: "the Farm's significant scientific contributions to agriculture", or "the Picturesque composition". If a building has been Classified or Recognized by the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office, this also has been noted. The buildings are as follows:

  • Building 12 Forage Crops A,S
  • Building 18 Seed Biology S
  • Building 20 K.W. Neatby Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 21 Header House S
  • Building 22 Laboratory Services S Rec.
  • Building 26 Insect Pest Survey A,S
  • Building 32 Storage A,S
  • Building 34 Genetics A,S Rec.
  • Building 36 Service Building A,S
  • Building 37 Service Building A,S
  • Building 49 William Saunders Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 50 Main Greenhouse Range A Rec.
  • Building 54 Former Residence A Rec.
  • Building 55 Horticulture Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 56 Storage Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 57 Dairy Technology A,S Rec.
  • Building 59 Nutrition Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 60 Former Residence A,S Rec.
  • Building 74 Arboretum Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 75 Cereal Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 76 Cereal Building A,S Class.
  • Building 77 Storage Building (stable) A Rec.
  • Building 82 Barn/Storage Building S
  • Building 88 Main Dairy Barn A,S Class.
  • Building 91 Swine Barn A,S Rec
  • Building 94 Engineering Building A,S Rec.
  • Building 95 Sheep Barn A,S Rec
  • Building 98 Carpentry Shop A,S Rec.
  • Building 99 Seed Storage Building S
  • Building 108 Service Building A
  • Building 111 Tobacco Barn (storage) S
  • Building 112 Tobacco Barn (storage) S
  • Building 113 Tobacco Barn (storage) S
  • Building 117 Meteorology Station S
  • Building 121 Laboratory Building S

Many of the other buildings on the site derive their value as part of a complex of ancillary, vernacular structures on the cultural landscape and for their continuing role in the Farm's day to day operation. The individual buildings in this group may have some intrinsic historic value, but primarily they derive their value as part of a complex. There are a few buildings for which little is presently known of their historic function or, in some cases, even the date of construction. Research should be undertaken to determine their significance measured against the commemorative intent of the Farm, prior to any decisions on their future use or management. The following buildings are included in this list: Building 75b: P , S Building 91a: Isolation Swine Barn P,S Building 92: Swine Building P,S Building 136: Bio-control Laboratory S,F Building 136a: Storage Building S,F (Neither the Central Heating Plant nor the Sir John Carling Building are cultural resources, although the latter will soon be subject to FHBRO evaluation.)

5.1 b The Experimental Fields, Plots and Shelterbelts The cultural landscape within this zone is characterized by the following elements which, as they visually express both the Picturesque composition and the activity of scientific agricultural research and practical verification, are level 1 resources: the orderly organization of the fields based on a grid system reinforced by a regular system of roadways and access lanes, many of which are tree-lined, and distinctive internal fencing: red "pencil posts" with white tops; within the parameters of the grid system the variable sizes, colours, textures and seasonal variations of the fields and of the plots into which they are subdivided, which reflect ongoing agricultural research needs; the presence of clusters of small research support buildings in the fields; the relationship between the open fields and the heavily screened Driveway with its parkway characteristics of curbs and street lights and; the remaining shelterbelts on the western perimeter of Fisher Avenue at the north end of the Farm.

5.1 c The Arboretum and Ornamental Gardens The cultural landscape within this zone is characterized by the following elements which, as they reflect the 19th century philosophy of agriculture and the Picturesque composition, are level 1 resources: the skillful use of topography and water to compose a pleasing Picturesque design, as exemplified in the use of the wooded escarpment and terracing in the arboretum; the incorporation of the shoreline of the Rideau Canal, Dow's Lake and the lagoons into the visual composition; the naturalistic treatment of the ravines along the east side of the site; and the placement of the ornamental beds on a gentle south-facing slope to capture sunlight and to present the most effective view when approached from the south along Prince of Wales Drive; the circulation pattern in the arboretum, with the paved ring road acting as an extension of the Driveway from the traffic circle, and graveled pedestrian pathways, all laid out in a typically Picturesque design of curving promenades and constantly changing views; within the arboretum, the diversity and quantity of mature trees and shrubs, many identified to educate the viewer, set in naturalistic plantings in a turfgrass lawn; the studied informality and the careful placement of rows of flowering shrubs (e.g. forsythia) where they will have the greatest visual impact are also signature elements; within the ornamental gardens, the pattern of repeated ornamental beds of annuals and perennials, some in the original crescent-shaped beds of the 1890s, others in a more modem rectilinear design, interspersed with focal points such as trellises and arbours.

The Macoun Memorial Garden, with its pool, sundial and perennial display, is an evolved 1930s treatment within the framework of the older Picturesque layout. The Lilac Walk continues the motif of rows of flowering shrubs as seen in the arboretum. The collections of specific ornamental plants displayed within the beds speak to the success of variety selection through scientific research, and to the 19th century view that farm life could be enhanced through beautification. Of these collections, the most significant are the lilacs, irises and roses, since the Fart-n carried out extensive research in the development of new varieties of these species.

5.2 Historic Values of the Cultural Landscape

Taken as a whole, the Central Experimental Farm is valued as a distinctive cultural landscape which: symbolizes the central role agriculture has played in shaping the country; portrays the 19th century philosophy of agriculture, within a Picturesque composition; reflects its function of agricultural research and practical verification in its layout and design; reflects the key role of the Central Experimental Farm in testing agricultural techniques and selecting varieties of crops and horticultural plants suitable for a wide range of climatic zones and soil types; and which represents a rare example of a farm within a city.

5.2 a More specifically, the central core and its component cultural resources are valued for: their direct role in the research, administration and farming activities of the Farm, and its central role in the administration of a national network of experimental farms and agricultural stations; the placement and design of the specified level 1 buildings, and their relationships to each other and to their landscape setting, which reveal their original functions and the orderly development of the original 1880s Picturesque plan; the enhanced understanding they provide of the functional organization and evolution of the place; their distinctive views, which, in the Picturesque tradition, provide foreground, middle ground and background elements, including but not limited to:

  • the view north from the bend on Prince of Wales Drive across the fields;
  • the view of the Main Dairy Barn from the east and the west, emphasizing its landmark quality;
  • the view west along the Driveway, with its closed canopy allée of trees; and
  • the view north across the lawn to the Saunders Building; and their associations with key figures in the development of Canadian agriculture, such as William Saunders, Charles Saunders, and Sir John Carling.

The identified level 1 buildings are valued for: their direct and important role in the research, administration and farming activities of the Farm and their direct association in the administration of a national network of experimental farms and agricultural stations; their individual design, form and location and their relationships to each other and to their landscape setting, which reveal their historic functions and the orderly development of the original 1880s Picturesque plan; the enhanced understanding they provide of the functional organization and evolution of the place; and their contribution to views and aesthetic qualities of the Farm. Those buildings which derive their historical merit from their role as part of a complex of support buildings are valued for: their contribution to the large complex of supporting structures that enhances the understanding of the scale, extent and variety of the research farming operations and the Farm's evolving functional requirements; their continuing functional role in Farm operations; their small, single-storey, board and batten style consisting of natural material conveys their functional support role; their visual compatibility within the 1880s Picturesque plan and enhancement of the historic, functional character of the Farm's landscape.

5.2 b The experimental fields, plots and shelterbelts are valued for for the open fields which underscore the agricultural character of the place, and which are essential to an understanding of both the historic and the on-going function of scientific agricultural research, and to the understanding of 'a farm within the city'; the distinctive landscape features such as the orderly circulation system, the allées of trees, the fences, the divisions of fields into experimental plots, and the changing patterns of colours and textures which enhance an understanding of the on-going research function; the shelterbelts, which are valued for their role in research directed towards expanding agriculture in western Canada; and their distinctive views, including but not limited to: - the view from the comer of Baseline and Fisher, looking northeast to the central core, with the Booth barn complex in the foreground; - the view southwest from Carling Avenue across the fields; - the framed view looking east from Fisher along Cow Lane; and - the view from any point along the periphery into the open fields.

5.2 c The ornamental gardens and arboretum are valued: because the arboretum, the gardens and the collections within them reflect the 19th century philosophy of agriculture, i.e. that beauty and efficiency were compatible with agricultural activity; and demonstrate that a high regard for aesthetics was an integral part of the Farm from the beginning; because they demonstrate a direct link to the scientific research and practical verification carried out in support of the development of a horticultural industry suited to Canada's wide range of climatic zones and soil types; for their representative collections of plant materials; for their associations with prominent Canadian horticulturists such as William T. Macoun and Isabella Preston; and for their distinctive views, composed in the Picturesque tradition of foreground, middle ground and background elements, including but not limited to: - the scenic outlooks from the arboretum ring road to Dow's Lake, the Rideau Canal, Carleton University and towards downtown Ottawa; - the view from Prince of Wales Drive into the arboretum and ornamental gardens; - the view south, sloping gradually downhill, within the ornamental gardens; - views west towards the Farm from the other side of the Rideau Canal, Colonel By Drive and Dow's Lake, as well as the views from below the arboretum terraces up the slope; - the view looking north from Prince of Wales Drive to the green barn (Building 82, formerly used for dehydrating plant samples) on the east side of the road; - the views from the Fletcher Wildlife Gardens to Hartwell's Lockstation; and - the view of the Macoun Memorial Garden from the Driveway.

5.3 Objectives for the Cultural Landscape

The cultural landscape will be unimpaired and not under threat when: any additions, repairs or other interventions to the listed level 1 buildings respect the historic character of the individual building, its setting, its design and its role in the designated place, and managed in accordance with recognized heritage conservation principles future uses, including development or activities, for the Farm respect the historic and distinctive cultural landscape patterns and features through the application of recognized heritage conservation principles; decisions on future development continue to respect the 1880s plan; any changes to the collection of support buildings respect the character of the collection and their general contribution to the historic character of the designated place, with particular sensitivity to incremental changes; prior to alteration or removal, buildings whose history is not fully known should be researched to determine their significance as measured against the commemorative intent of the Farm; additions and modifications to the landscape respect the surviving Picturesque character of the landscape; vegetation management respects the identified historic planting patterns and layout of open fields and views; the placement and design of operational facilities, roadways, parking lots, lighting and site furniture such as signs and fencing respect the character of the designated place, in accordance with recognized heritage conservation principles; the character and scale of Prince of Wales Drive and the Driveway through the Farm are maintained and safeguarded. the historic values of the cultural landscape are communicated to the public.

6.0 Archaeological Resources

Little archaeological research has been carried out at the Farm to date. Potential level 1 resources include the sites of level 1 buildings (and the original locations of those which have been moved); and archaeological remains of original buildings which have been destroyed but which would have been level 1 buildings had they been preserved (such as the Macoun house, where the Macoun Memorial Garden is now located). Archaeological evidence of earlier roads, pathways or ornamental plantings are potentially level 1 resources. Given the purpose and history of the Central Experimental Farm, there exists the possibility of recovering unique pollen and seed samples through archaeological investigation.

6.1 Values of the Archaeological Resources

Level 1 archaeological resources are valued: for the tangible evidence and potential for enhanced understanding which they could provide of the establishment and evolution of the Farm; for the tangible evidence and enhanced understanding they could provide of the Farm's scientific contributions to agriculture in Canada; and for the research potential they hold.

6.2 Objectives for Archaeological Resources

Archaeological resources will be unimpaired and not under threat when: any physical intervention on the site is preceded by archaeological consultation in accordance with recognized professional standards. the historic values of the archaeological resources are communicated to the public, It is recommended that a comprehensive inventory and assessment of archaeological resources be undertaken.

7.0 Historic Objects

There are a wealth and great diversity of objects associated with the Central Experimental Farm and its history. For the sake of convenience, they are classified here as those objects which are held by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, and those which are held by the National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation, not all of which are located at the Farm. Level 1 historic objects held by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada include: the National Collections housed on site, consisting of the Canadian National Collection of Insects and Arachnids with 14 million specimens, considered the third largest such collection in the world; the National Vascular Plant Herbarium with 1 million specimens; the National Mycology Herbarium with 300,000 specimens; and the Canadian Fungal Collection with 11,000 specimens. These collections have been significantly enhanced by the donations from other agencies and amateur collectors.; the Canadian Agricultural Library, with thousands of historic and contemporary publications, manuscripts, design drawings, paintings, etc., including rare first editions; material originating with Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, which is now in the National Archives and National Library collections; older machinery, equipment, tools, scientific instruments etc., which may be in storage or still in use, but which relate directly to the commemorative intent of the site are potentially level 1 resources.

One current example of this category would be the computerized tractor designed to collect research data on the efficiency and wear of farm machinery; machinery prototypes and design drawings, developed on-site for use elsewhere; and small-scale farm machinery used within the experimental plots, designed and fabricated on site (much of the small-scale machinery is designed for seeding and harvesting within the very small experimental plots). Level 1 historic objects which are held by the National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation include:

7.1 Values of the Historic Objects

The original Agriculture Canada Museum Collection, which has been transferred to the National Museum of Science and Technology; original botanical prints, created to document new plant varieties developed on the Farm; part of the Agriculture Canada photo collection, including five boxes of glass lantern slides attributed to William Saunders; and other historic objects relating to the Farm and its research activities over the years.

The level 1 historic objects are valued: for their direct association with the Farm's significant scientific contributions to Canadian agriculture through scientific research and practical verification; for their continuing contribution to scientific agricultural research; and for their direct association with the working farm aspect of the Central Experimental Farm. In addition to their value to scientific research and the development of Canadian agriculture, the National Collections cited above have international stature because of their size, scope and completeness.

7.2 Objectives for Historic Objects

The historic objects will be unimpaired and not under threat when: they are inventoried, catalogued, conserved and maintained according to recognized cultural resource management principles; potential level 1 historic objects no longer required by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada for agricultural research, practical verification, or the operations of the Central Experimental Farm are assessed for their historic value according to the Statement of Commemorative Intent, and, if determined to have historic value, offered to the National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation and other museums or national repositories prior to disposal; and the collections and archival material are accessible to the public for appropriate research purposes. the historic values of the historic objects are communicated to the public.

Part II

8.0 Messages of National Historic Significance

Messages of national historic significance are based on the commemorative intent of the site. The national significance of the Central Experimental Farm will be effectively communicated when as many people as possible understand that: the Central Experimental Farm is a distinctive cultural landscape; the Central Experimental Farm is a symbol, in the heart of the Nation's Capital, of the central role of agriculture in shaping the country; this more than 1000-acre farm reflects the 19th century philosophy of agriculture, and carefully integrates an administrative core and a range of other buildings with arboretum, ornamental gardens, display beds and experimental fields in a Picturesque composition; since its establishment in 1886, the Farm has made significant scientific contributions to agriculture in Canada by uniting scientific experimentation with practical verification, as exemplified by the development of the hardy strains of wheat that were so influential in expanding Western Canadian agriculture; the Central Experimental Farm is a rare example of a farm within a city; the Central Experimental Farm is a National Historic Site.

8.1 Supporting Messages of National Significance

The messages, which provide context and contribute to enhanced understanding of the messages of national historic significance, are detailed below.

8.1 a For the key message the Central Experimental Farm is a distinctive cultural landscape, the context messages are: A cultural landscape is "any geographical area that has been modified, influenced, or given special cultural meaning by people." Human interrelationship with the natural environment defines cultural landscapes. Human activities and processes have shaped them. This relationship between people and place has created patterns in the landscape with layers of human meanings, which reflect past human attitudes and values. Cultural landscapes may be seen as predominantly designed, evolved or associative in character. The Farm was developed according to principles of Picturesque theory.

Characteristics of the Picturesque which can be seen in the design and layout of the Farm include the gently rolling, pastoral landscape; the importance of views and vistas; the use of trees and shrubbery to frame views, define circulation, and provide variety and interest in the scene; and a functional circulation pattern which offers changing views of the landscape as the spectator moves through it.

Other Canadian examples of the Picturesque tradition include country and villa estates such as Prince's Lodge and Mount Uniacke in Nova Scotia, Cataraqui in Quebec, and in Ontario Inverarden House, Dundurn Castle, and Rideau Hall, all three of which are National Historic Sites. The Farm was laid out in 1886 with a functional plan reflecting 19th century agricultural philosophy and a strong aesthetic character in the Picturesque tradition. These qualities are still evident today.

The plan is based on three clearly defined zones: a central core of administrative, scientific and functional farm buildings and spaces; the experimental fields, plots, and shelterbelts; and the arboretum, ornamental gardens and experimental hedges. The Farm is predominantly a designed landscape. Since its inception, the Farm has been recognized for the many roles it plays in enriching the Nation's Capital. The Farm is one of the key landmarks of Ottawa.

8.1 b For the key message, the Central Experimental Farm is a symbol, in the heart of the Nation's Capital, of the central role of agriculture in shaping the country, the context messages are: The importance of agriculture to Canada was reflected in the creation of the federal Department of Agriculture as a separate department in 1878. The Central Experimental Farm was the headquarters of a national system of experimental farms, established in response to the growing emphasis on the application of science, especially chemistry and genetics, to agriculture.

One of the Farm's primary roles was to generate knowledge and disseminate information on the adaptation of agricultural practices, techniques, plants and livestock to the wide range of Canadian climatic and soil conditions. A central location and administration was required to address a range of national agricultural issues such as quarantine regulations, human and animal disease control, the supply and testing of plants and livestock to meet Canadian conditions, and the strengthening of agriculture as the economic basis of the country in the 19th century. Canadian agriculture has benefited enormously from the foresight of Sir John Carling, who founded the national system of experimental farms, and from the organizational and scientific skills of William Saunders, the first director of the experimental farms. The Farm has served Canadian agriculture for over 100 years, adapting to meet changing needs and priorities. The location of the Farm in the Nation's Capital provided (and provides) an opportunity to showcase Canadian agriculture and its achievements to the world.

8.1 c For the key message, this more than 1000-acre farm reflects the 19th century philosophy of agriculture, and carefully integrates an administrative core and a range of other buildings with arboretum, ornamental gardens, display beds and experimental fields in a Picturesque composition, the context messages are: The 19th century philosophy of agriculture employed the latest scientific and technological advances, especially in chemistry and genetics, to increase agricultural efficiency and productivity, creating an 'Industrial Revolution' in the agricultural sector. The 19th century philosophy of agriculture held the view that science could make agriculture more productive, and rural life more beautiful and efficient, with less drudgery. Both the 19th century philosophy of agriculture and the principles of Picturesque design were based on the idea of improving on nature by imposing order and function as well as definite concepts of beauty. The Picturesque composition of the 'Farm, dating from the late 1880s, skillfully integrates a central core of administrative, scientific and functional farm buildings; the experimental fields, plots and shelterbelts; and the ornamental gardens and arboretum with a series of significant views and vistas.

8.1 d For the key message, Since its establishment in 1886, the Farm has made significant scientific contributions to agriculture in Canada by uniting scientific experimentation with practical verification, as exemplified by the development of the hardy strains of wheat that were so influential in expanding Western Canadian agriculture, the context messages are: Since 1886, the Central Experimental Farm has contributed substantially to the development of Canadian agriculture through scientific research, experimentation and practical verification.

The Farm contributed substantially to the improvement of agriculture throughout Canada. In particular, the Farm contributed to the expansion of agriculture in Western Canada through the development of hardy strains of wheat and through experimentation with shelterbelts, and in Eastern Canada through research on forages and grasses.

As the central location within a system of Dominion experimental farms, the Central Experimental Farm addressed national issues such as human and animal health; the importation of plants and livestock; the identification and control of imported insect pests; and soil fertility. Specific contributions of the Farm include: - dairy processing technology, to reduce spoilage and retain maximum nutrition; - the development of vaccines for the control of disease in animals; - food processing, including frozen food technology and instant mashed potato technology; - research on forage production, storage and utilization; - the development of hardy ornamental plants capable of withstanding the rigours of the Canadian climate, particularly lilacs, irises and roses; - soils and land management research rising from the dust bowl of the 1930s, especially agricultural productivity mapping, soil mapping and research into the impact of tillage methods on soil fertility and conservation; - the transfer of both agricultural technology, and improved varieties of plants and livestock, to farmers across Canada to meet the changing demands of the national and international marketplace.

The Farm is the site of one of the oldest weather monitoring stations in the country, established in the 1890s. The recording of weather data is crucial to the Farm's research and agricultural functions. The Farm needs to be a sufficient size in order to continue to carry out scientific research and practical verification effectively.

8.1 e For the key message, the Central Experimental Farm is a rare example of a farm within a city, the context messages are: The Central Experimental Farm is over 400 hectares (1000 acres) devoted to a working agricultural research farm within the Nation's Capital. The Farm was established here in 1886 as a federal government initiative to advance agriculture and, with this unique location in the heart of the Nation's Capital, showcase Canadian agricultural technology to a national and international audience.

This particular location was selected because of the diversity of soil types and access to land, water and rail transport; and because from this location it could serve farmers in both Ontario and Quebec. In 1886, this was far from the city, necessitating the provision of residences and recreational facilities for the Farm staff. The Farm provides educational opportunities for visitors, most of whom are city dwellers, to experience a farm, find out where their food comes from, and discover achievements in agricultural research, science and technology that affect them every day. An agricultural museum was part of Saunders' original vision for the Central Experimental Farm, and was intended to contribute to the dissemination of information about agriculture and agricultural science. Such a museum was finally established in the mid-20th century, although its presence has been intermittent.

8.2 Objectives for Effective Communication of Messages of National Historic Significance

Planning and design of heritage communication programs will be effective when: as many people as possible understand the five reasons why the Central Experimental Farm is a national historic site; detailed learning objectives have been developed and considered when developing programs in order to ensure proper evaluation of audience learning; the diversity of audiences and markets is considered and accounted for; quality presentation practices and key messages are incorporated into programs; monitoring of program content, quality and delivery occurs. Measures and measurement methodologies are recommended to determine the effectiveness of the delivery - the audience's understanding - of messages based on the learning objectives. Effectiveness measures will need to ensure that: a combination of off-site and on-site experiences are employed to meet visitor and nonvisitor needs; the nationally significant messages are delivered to all main target markets at appropriate places using relevant methods.

Part III

9.0 Other Heritage Resources

While resources directly linked to the commemorative intent of the Central Experimental Farm are considered to have the highest value as cultural resources, there are other resources and messages that also have value and contribute to the character of the site.

9.1 Level 2 Built Cultural Resources

Level 2 built resources include: buildings which pre-date the Farm, but were acquired when land was purchased to establish and later to expand the Farm, among these, the Booth Barn (designated under the Ontario Heritage Act) is the most prominent; the building (number 138) used as a World War II naval listening post, located in what is now the Fletcher Wildlife Garden. the nine buildings comprising the Dominion Observatory, located at the north end of the site adjacent to Carling Avenue, three of these buildings have been designated as Classified and five as Recognized by the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office.

9.1 a Values of the Level 2 Built Cultural Resources The agricultural buildings which predate the establishment of the Farm are valued for the evidence they provide of early agricultural activity in the region. The Booth Barn is valued both as a feature in the cultural landscape, and for its own architectural merit (exterior only) as recognized through its designation under the Ontario Heritage Act. It is also valued for its association with lumber baron J.W. Booth. The Dominion Observatory Complex is valued because the buildings and their gardens contribute to the Picturesque character of the landscape, for the scientific achievements realized here, and for their association with Sir Sandford Fleming. The former naval listening post is valued for the role it played in Canada's war efforts during World War II.

9.1 b Objectives for Level 2 Built Resources The level 2 built heritage resources will be unimpaired and not under threat when: those buildings in the Observatory Complex which have been designated by FHBRO are managed according to the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office Code of Practice. management decisions for the other buildings, including the Booth Barn, take into consideration their historic values and place in the Farm's cultural landscape.

9.2 Level 2 Landscape Resources

Most of the landscape resources on the Farm are level 1 resources and have been addressed in section 5. The gardens associated with the buildings in the Dominion Observatory Complex are level 2 resources which respect and extend the Picturesque design of the rest of the Farm. The sundial of stones and plant materials in front of the main building was laid out by the co-founder of the Observatory, Otto Julius Klotz.

9.2 a Values of the Level 2 Landscape Resources The landscape around the Observatory buildings is valued because it contributes to and respects the Picturesque character of the cultural landscape. The sundial is valued for its association with the co-founder of the Observatory, Dr. Klotz.

9.2 b Objectives of the Level 2 Landscape Resources The level 2 landscape resources will be unimpaired and not under threat when management decisions take into consideration their contribution to the cultural landscape of the Central Experimental Farm.

9.3 Level 2 Archaeological Resources

Potential level 2 archaeological resources may be associated with the Booth Barn and other buildings which pre-date the establishment of the Farm, with the naval communications post and with the Dominion Observatory complex.

9.3 a Values of Level 2 Archaeological Resources Level 2 archaeological resources would be valued for the evidence they could provide of the settlement of the area prior to the establishment of the Farm, and of the establishment and activities of the Dominion Observatory.

9.3 b Objectives of Level 2 Archaeological Resources Level 2 archaeological resources will be unimpaired and not under threat when any physical intervention on the site is preceded by archaeological consultation in accordance with recognized professional standards.

9.4 Level 2 Historic Objects

The existence of level 2 historic objects on- and off-site is largely unknown. Any such objects would include any objects, collections of objects or archival material related to the Dominion Observatory and its scientific research and operations; to the naval listening post; and to the Booth Barn and other structures which pre-date the establishment of the Farm. One level 2 object whose whereabouts is known is the telescope from the Observatory, which is currently in the care of the National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation.

9.4 a Values of Level 2 Historic Objects Level 2 historic objects are valued for their direct association with events and resources such as activities on the property that pre-dates the establishment of the Farm, the naval communications post and the Dominion Observatory.

9.4 b Objectives of Level 2 Historic Objects Potential level 2 historic objects will be unimpaired and not under threat when: an inventory and assessment of such objects or collections has been undertaken; and the use and/or disposition of such objects respects their historic importance.

10.0 Messages for Other Heritage Values

Messages about the Central Experimental Farm which are not directly linked to its commemorative intent, but which have significance provincially, regionally or locally and contribute to an understanding of the site include: There were farms on the site prior to the establishment of the Central Experimental Farm and its subsequent expansion. Some buildings from these earlier farms survive because they were used in the scientific and agricultural activities carried out here. The Booth Barn, which pre-dates the establishment of the Farm, was owned by lumber baron J.W. Booth. Lumbering was the original basis of the area's economy.

The older portion of the Neatby Building, built in the early 1920s, was originally used by the Department of National Defence to store the personnel files of the veterans of World War I. During World War II, Polish art treasures, smuggled out of occupied Poland, were temporarily stored and partially conserved here. The Neatby Building was transferred to the Department of Agriculture in 1947. During World War II there was a naval listening post located in what is now the Fletcher Wildlife Gardens. The post monitored Canadian naval communications throughout the world. By the end of the War, Canada had the world's third largest Navy.

The Dominion Observatory complex was established on this site in 1902 to carry out research in astronomy, seismology, astrophysics and related physical sciences. Its presence here underscores the rural character of the Farm and the surrounding area at the time, since astronomers require a location free of light pollution. The Observatory is associated with the career and multi-faceted achievements of Sir Sandford Fleming: designer of the first Canadian postage stamp (1851) and chief surveyor of the transcontinental railway, Fleming is perhaps best known as the inventor of standard time, used around the world.

The Farm is associated with the careers and achievements of scientists and horticulturalists such as James Fletcher, Kenneth W. Neatby, J.H. Grisdale, William T. Macoun and Isabella Preston. During both World Wars agricultural research on the Farm was partially directed towards the war effort; for example during World War II research on suitable fibres for parachutes and life jackets was conducted, and in World War I there was research done on food preservation. Research carried out at the Farm in co-operation with the Civic Hospital contributed significantly to the development of surgical techniques which have helped make the Hospital's Heart Institute world famous. Surgical procedures developed on pigs from the Farm are now used to treat heart patients. The Farm also participated in the development of a blood vessel stapler used in surgery.

Over the years the city expanded and grew around the Farm. The early development was residential not industrial or commercial. The immediate area of the Farm is still considered a highly desirable place to live, due to the green space and amenities which the Farm provides. In the past the Farm's surplus produce, milk and eggs from the research programmes were given to the surrounding community or sold to food processors in eastern Ontario. The old Ottawa Street Railway system, a streetcar network, extended into the Farm during the late 19th and early 20th century to permit the large numbers of Farm employees to travel to work conveniently. The Farm fulfills the role of a large central green space within the city. With its mature trees, expanses of lawn and feeling of solitude and quiet, it is popular with local residents as a place for recreation. The gardens and greenhouses make it a popular location for wedding photographs.

The Farm is part of the National Capital Commission's designated green space. Because of its location, size and green character, the Farm exerts a considerable environmental influence on the surrounding community: it has been referred to as "the lungs of the city", and also provides significant habitat for urban wildlife. Many special events have taken place at the Farm, ranging from the World Poultry Congress in 1923 and the International Plowing Match to the visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1939 and the state visit of President Mikhail Gorbachev of the USSR in the 1980s. Many of these events have been marked by the planting of commemorative trees on the grounds.

The Friends of the Central Experimental Farm was founded in 1988 by retired employees of the Farm and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and other interested people in order to support and encourage the on-going existence of the Farm and its activities. The Agriculture Museum was established in 1983 as a partnership between Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the National Museum of Science and Technology Corporation. Farm animals have been present on the Farm since 1889, and can still be seen at the Agriculture Museum. The Central Experimental Farm is part of a family of over 800 National Historic Sites in over 400 Canadian communities.

10.1 Objectives for Effective Communication of Level 2 Messages

Planning and design of heritage communication programs will be effective when: detailed learning objectives for the level 2 cultural resources and messages have been developed and considered when developing programs in order to ensure proper evaluation of audience learning; the diversity of audiences and markets is considered and accounted for; quality presentation practices and key messages are incorporated into programs; monitoring of program content, quality and delivery occurs.

Measures and measurement methodologies are recommended to determine the effectiveness of the delivery - the audience's understanding - of messages based on the learning objectives. Effectiveness measures will need to ensure that: a combination of off-site and on-site experiences are employed to meet visitor and non-visitor needs; the other heritage messages are delivered to all main target markets at appropriate places using relevant methods.

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